昨晚观影《黑水》(Dark Waters),被其题材深刻震惊,因为它揭示了美国杜邦公司(DuPont)生产的特氟龙涂层的不堪原罪。

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基于纳撒尼尔·里奇(Nathaniel Rich)在《纽约时报》上发表的文章《The Lawyer Who Became DuPont’s Worst Nightmare》,围绕罗伯特·比洛特(Robert Bilott)展开。他担任辩护律师长达 8 年之久,对化工巨头杜邦公司提起了环境诉讼。这场官司揭露了几十年来杜邦公司化学污染的历史。

黑水 [EB/OL]. https://movie.douban.com/subject/30331959/. 豆瓣观影. 2019-11-22

电影中,随着律师罗伯特·比洛特为首的团队对杜邦公司展开调查,除了揭示杜邦公司几十年知法犯法蓄意隐瞒、不顾环境巨大危害肆意在西弗吉尼亚倾倒废物废水、不顾员工安全进行人体实验外,还展示了使用杜邦特氟龙涂层的不粘锅危害的冰山一角。罗伯特通过八年的努力,最终使杜邦恶行为世人所知(白人大公司并不比中国小造纸厂老板高尚多少),并使其支付了高额罚款(杜邦以 6.707 亿美元了结了所有 3535 起个案)。

特氟龙涂层本是美军在二战时开发的用于士兵雨衣、子弹、坦克上的防水涂层,后随着战事结束,杜邦公司将其用于不粘锅,收割了全球几十亿美元的市场。

聚四氟乙烯(Poly Tetra Fluoro-Ethylene,简写为 PTFE),别称特富龙、特氟龙、铁氟龙、陶氟隆、德氟隆,一般称作 “不粘涂层” 或 “易清洁物料”。这种材料具有抗酸抗碱、抗各种有机溶剂的特点,几乎不溶于所有的溶剂。同时,聚四氟乙烯具有耐高温的特点,它的摩擦系数极低,所以可作润滑作用之余,亦成为了易清洁水管内层的理想涂料。

聚四氟乙烯 [EB/OL]. https://baike.baidu.com/item/聚四氟乙烯. 百度百科. 2019-06-24

然而,虽然这种涂层有着种种优点,但却存在重大的隐患!

  1. 生产特氟龙的添加剂全氟辛酸(PFOA,俗称 C8)是致癌物质。
  2. 涂层在 340℃或以上高温会产生挥发性含氟化合物。

前几年特氟龙的负面报道让大家对不粘锅的安全性产生了担忧。尽管特氟龙性质稳定,但当温度高于其熔点(327℃)时,它会开始分解,并释放出有毒的含氟化合物。作为参考,特氟龙不粘锅的推荐最高安全使用温度为 260℃。如果锅一直空烧,可能达到这个温度,如果锅里有食物,温度则通常不会超过 260℃。

除了特氟龙本身,对特氟龙不粘锅安全性的质疑还来自于其生产过程中使用的一种加工助剂——全氟辛酸(PFOA)。上世纪末,杜邦公司被指控故意隐瞒 PFOA 的危害,有研究认为这种物质可能与出生缺陷,以及癌症的发生有关,但它对人体健康的影响目前还存在争议,不过在 2012 年,杜邦公司宣布所有的特氟龙涂层炊具已实现去 PFOA 化。

不粘锅炒的菜没有灵魂 [EB/OL]. https://baijiahao.baidu.com/s?id=1642173827812913279. 三联美食. 2019-08-18

2006 年,美国 EPA 发布禁令,禁止 PFOA 用于生产特氟龙。杜邦公司承诺以其它化工添加剂替代 PFOA 用于制作特氟龙。

Jan. 27, 2006 – Chemical industry leaders have agreed to an EPA plan to phase out a chemical used to make Teflon, microwave popcorn bags, waterproof clothing, and many other products.

The chemical, PFOA (also known as C8), is a man-made chemical that persists in the environment. When it gets into the body, it stays there for a very long time. And it has somehow gotten into the bodies of nearly everyone on earth.

Most experts don’t think it’s hurting us — yet. Factory workers exposed to relatively high levels of PFOA don’t seem to have particularly severe health problems. But animal studies strongly suggest that when enough PFOA builds up in the body, it can cause cancer, liver damage, growth defects, immune-system damage, and death.

This week, the EPA announced a voluntary “PFOA stewardship” program asking the eight companies that make PFOA to stop. The program would reduce the use of PFOA by 95% by 2010. It would eliminate production of the chemical by 2015 at the latest.

Daniel J. DeNoon. EPA Urges Teflon Chemical Ban. DuPont Agrees to Phase-Out of Worrisome Pollutant PFOA[EB/OL]. https://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/news/20060127/epa-urges-teflon-chemical-ban. 2006-01-27

但在 340℃及以上高温产生挥发性含氟化合物这一范畴,杜邦公司并没有什么好的办法。虽然国外的癌症协会认为不粘锅不会导致癌症,但明确的温度警告也表明,对于喜欢大火煎炒的中国人来说,这一忧患是很严峻的。

The concern regarding Teflon and cancer risk is around the fumes released when Teflon is used for cooking. According to the Australian Government’s National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme (NICNAS), fumes are only released from Teflon-coated cookware when it is heated to extremely high temperatures (340°C-650°C); temperatures so high they would incinerate your food. There is no evidence that fumes are released from cookware at or below normal cooking temperatures. It is however advisable not to overheat an empty non-stick pan or to leave it unattended on the stove, particularly at a high setting.

Teflon cookware does not cause cancer[EB/OL]. https://www.cancercouncil.com.au/86095/cancer-information/general-information-cancer-information/cancer-questions-myths/environmental-and-occupational-carcinogens/teflon-cookware-does-not-cause-cancer/. Cancer Council NSW. 2018-05-16

更为严峻的是,杜邦公司虽然停止使用 PFOA,但启用了类似 PFOA 的类似化合物 PFAS。这种化合物 PFAS,科学家认为,在被认定以前将持续对全球人类产生有害影响。

科学家还发现在加热到 340°C 后,特氟龙挥发出的含氟化合物将会导致一种病症——聚合物烟雾热,或称为 “特氟龙流感”,症状包括类似流感的发冷、头痛、发烧,以及胸闷和咳嗽。

Teflon is now produced without the use of the cancer-causing chemical PFOA. It is, however, manufactured using similar compounds which many scientists argue are just as detrimental as PFOA.

In 2015, more than 200 scientists from around the world signed the Madrid Statement raising concerns about the use of substances similar to PFOA, called PFASs (PFOA is a type of PFAS). In the statement, scientists said it was essential to “reduce the use of PFASs in products and prevent their replacement with fluorinated alternatives in order to avoid long-term harm to human health and the environment.”

Teflon itself, when heated to 660°F, gives off fumes that can cause polymer fume fever, or Teflon flu, in humans. Symptoms of polymer fume fever are flu-like chills, headaches and fevers with chest tightness and mild cough.

The fumes that Teflon gives off kill certain birds at even lower temperatures. Instances of birds dying from Teflon pans heated to just 325°F have been documented and bird owners were advised by DuPont itself to be extra vigilant when cooking with non-stick pans around their pets.

DuPont & Chemours Teflon Lawsuit[EB/OL]. https://www.nationalinjuryhelp.com/dupont-chemours-teflon-lawsuit/. National Injury Help. 2019-04-05.

目前我国仍在乐此不疲的使用着特氟龙制作的不粘锅进行着烹饪。网络搜素了一下 “特氟龙不粘锅”,发现有大量商家在销售。这是京东上的特氟龙不粘锅商家:

京东特氟龙不粘锅商家
京东特氟龙不粘锅商家

这是天猫上的特氟龙不粘锅商家:

天猫特氟龙不粘锅商家
天猫特氟龙不粘锅商家

这些制作或销售特氟龙不粘锅的中小厂家,其工艺是否已经全部禁止了 PFOA 添加剂是存疑的,而在销售页面也没有给出明确的温度警告。

在此对仍在使用 PFOA 作为添加剂的某些小厂的法人说一句:祝你生孩子没屁眼(PFOA 的致畸性)!

最后提请各位读者注意:

  1. 尽量购买大品牌的不粘锅。
  2. 尽量购买陶瓷涂层不粘锅。
  3. 不要使用特氟龙不粘锅进行大火煎炒。
  4. 如特氟龙涂层脱落或严重刮伤,务必换锅。

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